Volume 189, Issue 2: Tomography and Applications 2022

1. Error Correction for Discrete Tomography

M. Ceko ; L. Hajdu ; R. Tijdeman.
Discrete tomography focuses on the reconstruction of functions $f: A \to \mathbb{R}$ from their line sums in a finite number $d$ of directions, where $A$ is a finite subset of $\mathbb{Z}^2$. Consequently, the techniques of discrete tomography often find application in areas where only a small number of projections are available. In 1978 M.B. Katz gave a necessary and sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the solution. Since then, several reconstruction methods have been introduced. Recently Pagani and Tijdeman developed a fast method to reconstruct $f$ if it is uniquely determined. Subsequently Ceko, Pagani and Tijdeman extended the method to the reconstruction of a function with the same line sums of $f$ in the general case. Up to here we assumed that the line sums are exact. In this paper we investigate the case where a small number of line sums are incorrect as may happen when discrete tomography is applied for data storage or transmission. We show how less than $d/2$ errors can be corrected and that this bound is the best possible.

2. Reconstruction of Convex Sets from One or Two X-rays

Yan Gerard.
We consider a class of problems of Discrete Tomography which has been deeply investigated in the past: the reconstruction of convex lattice sets from their horizontal and/or vertical X-rays, i.e. from the number of points in a sequence of consecutive horizontal and vertical lines. The reconstruction of the HV-convex polyominoes works usually in two steps, first the filling step consisting in filling operations, second the convex aggregation of the switching components. We prove three results about the convex aggregation step: (1) The convex aggregation step used for the reconstruction of HV-convex polyominoes does not always provide a solution. The example yielding to this result is called \textit{the bad guy} and disproves a conjecture of the domain. (2) The reconstruction of a digital convex lattice set from only one X-ray can be performed in polynomial time. We prove it by encoding the convex aggregation problem in a Directed Acyclic Graph. (3) With the same strategy, we prove that the reconstruction of fat digital convex sets from their horizontal and vertical X-rays can be solved in polynomial time. Fatness is a property of the digital convex sets regarding the relative position of the left, right, top and bottom points of the set. The complexity of the reconstruction of the lattice sets which are not fat remains an open question.

3. On taxicab distance mean functions and their geometric applications: methods, implementations and examples

Csaba Vincze ; Ábris Nagy.
A distance mean function measures the average distance of points from the elements of a given set of points (focal set) in the space. The level sets of a distance mean function are called generalized conics. In case of infinite focal points the average distance is typically given by integration over the focal set. The paper contains a survey on the applications of taxicab distance mean functions and generalized conics' theory in geometric tomography: bisection of the focal set and reconstruction problems by coordinate X-rays. The theoretical results are illustrated by implementations in Maple, methods and examples as well.

4. Diffuse and Localized Functional Dysconnectivity in Schizophrenia: a Bootstrapped Top-Down Approach

Davide Coluzzi ; Giuseppe Baselli.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a brain disorder leading to detached mind's normally integrated processes. Hence, the exploration of the symptoms in relation to functional connectivity (FC) had great relevance in the field. FC can be investigated on different levels, going from global features to single edges between regions, revealing diffuse and localized dysconnection patterns. In this context, SZ is characterized by a diverse global integration with reduced connectivity in specific areas of the Default Mode Network (DMN). However, the assessment of FC presents various sources of uncertainty. This study proposes a multi-level approach for more robust group-comparison. FC between 74 AAL brain areas of 15 healthy controls (HC) and 12 SZ subjects were used. Multi-level analyses and graph topological indexes evaluation were carried out by the previously published SPIDER-NET tool. Robustness was augmented by bootstrapped (BOOT) data and the stability was evaluated by removing one (RST1) or two subjects (RST2). The DMN subgraph was evaluated, toegether with overall local indexes and connection weights to enhance common activations/deactivations. At a global level, expected trends were found. The robustness assessment tests highlighted more stable results for BOOT compared to the direct data testing. Conversely, significant results were found in the analysis at lower levels. The DMN highlighted reduced connectivity and strength as well as increased deactivation in the SZ group. At […]