Computing the rotation distance between two binary trees with $n$ internal nodes efficiently (in $poly(n)$ time) is a long standing open question in the study of height balancing in tree data structures. In this paper, we initiate the study of this problem bounding the rank of the trees given at the input (defined by Ehrenfeucht and Haussler (1989) in the context of decision trees). We define the rank-bounded rotation distance between two given binary trees $T_1$ and $T_2$ (with $n$ internal nodes) of rank at most $r$, denoted by $d_r(T_1,T_2)$, as the length of the shortest sequence of rotations that transforms $T_1$ to $T_2$ with the restriction that the intermediate trees must be of rank at most $r$. We show that the rotation distance problem reduces in polynomial time to the rank bounded rotation distance problem. This motivates the study of the problem in the combinatorial and algorithmic frontiers. Observing that trees with rank $1$ coincide exactly with skew trees (binary trees where every internal node has at least one leaf as a child), we show the following results in this frontier : We present an $O(n^2)$ time algorithm for computing $d_1(T_1,T_2)$. That is, when the given trees are skew trees (we call this variant as skew rotation distance problem) - where the intermediate trees are restricted to be skew as well. In particular, our techniques imply that for any two skew trees $d(T_1,T_2) \le n^2$. We show the following upper bound : for any two trees $T_1$ and […]

Analysis of a network in terms of vulnerability is one of the most significant problems. Graph theory serves as a valuable tool for solving complex network problems, and there exist numerous graph-theoretic parameters to analyze the system's stability. Among these parameters, the closeness parameter stands out as one of the most commonly used vulnerability metrics. Its definition has evolved to enhance the ease of formulation and applicability to disconnected structures. Furthermore, based on the closeness parameter, vertex residual closeness, which is a newer and more sensitive parameter compared to other existing parameters, has been introduced as a new graph vulnerability index by Dangalchev. In this study, the outcomes of the closeness and vertex residual closeness parameters in Harary Graphs have been examined. Harary Graphs are well-known constructs that are distinguished by having $n$ vertices that are $k$-connected with the least possible number of edges.

We study the graph parameter elimination distance to bounded degree, which was introduced by Bulian and Dawar in their study of the parameterized complexity of the graph isomorphism problem. We prove that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable on planar graphs, that is, there exists an algorithm that given a planar graph $G$ and integers $d$ and $k$ decides in time $f(k,d)\cdot n^c$ for a computable function~$f$ and constant $c$ whether the elimination distance of $G$ to the class of degree $d$ graphs is at most $k$.

Foucaud et al. recently introduced and initiated the study of a new graph-theoretic concept in the area of network monitoring. Given a graph $G=(V(G), E(G))$, a set $M \subseteq V(G)$ is a distance-edge-monitoring set if for every edge $e \in E(G)$, there is a vertex $x \in M$ and a vertex $y \in V(G)$ such that the edge $e$ belongs to all shortest paths between $x$ and $y$. The smallest size of such a set in $G$ is denoted by $\operatorname{dem}(G)$. Denoted by $G-e$ (resp. $G \backslash u$) the subgraph of $G$ obtained by removing the edge $e$ from $G$ (resp. a vertex $u$ together with all its incident edges from $G$). In this paper, we first show that $\operatorname{dem}(G-e)- \operatorname{dem}(G)\leq 2$ for any graph $G$ and edge $e \in E(G)$. Moreover, the bound is sharp. Next, we construct two graphs $G$ and $H$ to show that $\operatorname{dem}(G)-\operatorname{dem}(G\setminus u)$ and $\operatorname{dem}(H\setminus v)-\operatorname{dem}(H)$ can be arbitrarily large, where $u \in V(G)$ and $v \in V(H)$. We also study the relation between $\operatorname{dem}(H)$ and $\operatorname{dem}(G)$, where $H$ is a subgraph of $G$. In the end, we give an algorithm to judge whether the distance-edge monitoring set still remain in the resulting graph when any edge of the graph $G$ is deleted.